Click to go to companion website:
AAAPOE Campus: 001: Geography Hall   地理館   地理馆        001-005:
Geography of Germany        
from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Wikipedia:Text of GNU
Free Documentation


Wikipedia:Text of GNU
Free Documentation


Germany is a large country in Central Europe, stretching from the
Alps, across the North European Plain to the North Sea and the
Baltic Sea. Germany has the second largest population in Europe
(after the European part of Russia) and is seventh largest in area.
The territory of Germany covers 357,021 km2 (137,847 sq mi),
consisting of 349,223 km2 (134,836 sq mi) of land and 7,798
km2 (3,011 sq mi) of water. Elevation ranges from the mountains
of the Alps (highest point: the Zugspitze at 2,962 metres (9,718
ft)) in the south to the shores of the North Sea (Nordsee) in the
northwest and the Baltic Sea (Ostsee) in the northeast. Between lie the forested uplands of central Germany and
the low-lying lands of northern Germany (lowest point: Neuendorf-Sachsenbande at 3.54 metres (11.6 ft) below
sea level), traversed by some of Europe's major rivers such as the Rhine, Danube and Elbe.[1] Because of its
central location, Germany shares borders with more European countries than any other country on the continent.
Its neighbours are Denmark in the north, Poland and the Czech Republic in the east, Austria and Switzerland in
the south, France in the southwest and Belgium, Luxemburg and the Netherlands in the west.

The northern third of the
country lies in the North
European Plain, with flat
terrain crossed by
watercourses (Elbe,
Ems, Weser, Oder).
Wetlands and marshy
conditions are found
close to the Dutch border
and along the Frisian
coast. Sandy
Mecklenburg in the
northeast has many
glacier-formed lakes
dating to the last ice age.

Moving south, central
Germany features rough
and somewhat
patternless hilly and
countryside, some of it
formed by ancient
volcanic activity. The
Rhine valley cuts through
the western part of this
region. The central
uplands continue east
and north as far as the
Saale and merge with
the Ore Mountains on the
border with the Czech
Republic. Upland
regions include the Eifel,
Hunsrück and Palatine
Forest west of the Rhine,
the Taunus hills north of
Frankfurt, the Vogelsberg
massif, the Rhön, and
the Thüringer Wald.
South of Berlin, the
east-central part of the
country is more like the
low northern areas, with
sandy soil and river
wetlands such as the
Spreewald region.

Southern Germany's
landforms are defined by
various linear hill and
mountain ranges like the
two adjacent ranges of
the Swabian and
Franconian Alb (reaches
approximately from the
source of the Danube in
the southwest of
south of Stuttgart, across
Swabia into Central
Franconia and to the
valley of the river Main)
and the Bavarian Forest
General map of Germany
Physical map of Germany
along the border between Bavaria and the Czech Republic. The Alps on the southern border are the highest mountains, but relatively little Alpine terrain lies within Germany (in southeastern Swabia
and Upper Bavaria) compared to Switzerland and Austria. The Black Forest, on the southwestern border with France, separates the Rhine from the headwaters of the Danube on its eastern slopes.
Alpine scenery in Bavaria

Germany's climate is
temperate and marine,
with cool, cloudy, wet
winters and summers
and in the south
occasional warm föhn
wind. The greater part of
Germany lies in the
cool/temperate climatic
zone in which humid
westerly winds
predominate. In the
northwest and the north
the climate is extremely
oceanic and rain falls all
the year round. Winters
there are relatively mild
and summers
comparatively cool. In the
east the climate shows
clear continental
features; winters can be
very cold for long
periods, and summers
can become very warm.
Here too, long dry
periods are often
recorded. In the centre
and the south there is a
transitional climate
which may be
predominantly oceanic
or continental, according
to the general weather
situation. Winters are
mild and summers tend
to be cool, though
maximum temperatures
can exceed 30 °C (86 °F)
for several days in a row
during heat waves.
Land use

Germany covers a total of 357,021 km², of which 4,750 km² is irrigated land and 7,798 km² is covered by water, the largest lakes being Lake Constance (total area of 536 km², with 62% of the shore
being German; international borders are not defined on the lake itself), Müritz (117 km²) and Chiemsee (80 km²). The majority of Germany is covered by either arable land (33%) or forestry and
woodland (31%). Only 15% is covered by permanent pastures.

Germany has a total of 2,389 km of coastline, and borders totalling 3,621 km (clockwise from north: Denmark 68 km, Poland 456 km, Czech Republic 646 km, Austria 784 km, Switzerland 334 km,
France 451 km, Luxembourg 138 km, Belgium 167 km, Netherlands 577 km). The German-Austrian border crosses itself near Jungholz. The border with Belgium includes 5 German exclaves
because the Vennbahn railway is on Belgian territory crossing in and out of Germany.


Throughout the Karst rocks many caves were built especially in the valley of the Hönne. The biggest culture cave of Europe is located in Balve.

The three main rivers in
Germany are:

the Rhine (Rhein in
German) with a German
part of 865 km (main
tributaries including the
Neckar, the Main and the
Moselle (Mosel));
the Elbe with a German
part of 727 km (also
drains into the North
Sea); and,
the Danube (Donau) with
a German part of 687 km.
central Germany, the
central Germany, the
Neckar in the southwest,
and the Weser in the
North. See also the list of
North. See also the list of
rivers in Germany.rivers
in Germany.
Maritime claims

  • Continental shelf: 200 m depth or to the depth of exploitation
  • Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm. The exact EEZ is due to conventions with neighbouring states.
  • Territorial sea: 12 nm

Natural resources

  • Iron ore, coal, potash, timber, lignite, uranium, copper, natural gas, salt, nickel, arable land, water


Current issues
  • Emissions from coal-burning utilities and industries contribute to air pollution; acid rain, resulting from sulphur dioxide emissions, is damaging forests; pollution in the Baltic Sea from raw
    sewage and industrial effluents from rivers in eastern Germany; hazardous waste disposal; government (under Chancellor Schröder, SPD) announced intent to end the use of nuclear power for
    producing electricity; government working to meet EU commitment to identify nature preservation areas in line with the EU's Flora, Fauna, and Habitat directive. Germany's last glacier is
    disappearing. [1]

International agreements
  • Party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic
    Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping,
    Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
  • Signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants

Natural hazards
  • Flooding through rivers after heavy rainfall, such as during the 2002 European floods, or Storm surge, such as the North Sea flood of 1962 or the historic floods of 1634 and 1362 that changed
    the coastline of what is now the west coast of Schleswig-Holstein.
Extreme points

Latitude and longitude

This is a list of the extreme points of Germany, the points that are farther north, south, east or west than any other location.

  • northernmost point: List, Sylt, Schleswig-Holstein 55°03′N, 8°24′E
  • southernmost point: Haldenwanger Eck, Oberstdorf, Bavaria 47°16′12.39″N, 10°10′41.95″E
  • westernmost point: Isenbruch, near Millen, North Rhine-Westphalia 51°1′N, 5°53′E
  • easternmost point: Deschka, Saxony 51°16′N, 15°2′E

The northernmost point in mainland Germany lies near Aventoft, Schleswig-Holstein at 54°54′N, 8°49′E

The extreme points of the German Confederation are mentioned in the first stanza of Das Lied der Deutschen, of which the third stanza is today the national
anthem of Germany. They were accurate when the song was penned in 1841, but are no longer accurate today. The limits mentioned are the following rivers:

  • Meuse River which crosses France, Belgium and the Netherlands and formed the border of the Duchy of Limburg, then part of the German Confederation
    and today the Dutch Province of Limburg.
  • Memel, which runs through Belarus and Lithuania but previously formed part of the border of East Prussia
  • Adige (Etsch), beginning in the province of Bolzano-Bozen (then in Austria) which was transferred from the Habsburg Empire to Italy after World War I
  • and the Belt which is a part of the Baltic Sea between Germany and Denmark.


  • lowest point: Wilstermarsch at Neuendorf-Sachsenbande (near Itzehoe) 3.53 m below sea level 53.96333° N 9.31806° E
  • highest point: Zugspitze (in the Bavarian Alps, on the Austrian border) 2,962 m 47°25′N, 10°59′E
See also

Google Web Hosting