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Geography of Turkey        
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Turkey is situated in Anatolia and the Balkans, bordering
Black Sea, between Bulgaria and Georgia, and
bordering the
Aegean Sea and the Mediterranean Sea,
Greece and Syria. The geographic coordinates
of the country lie at:
39°00′N 35°00′E.

Area: 780,580 km2 (301,384 sq mi); land: 770,760 km2
(297,592 sq mi), water: 9,820 km2 (3,792 sq mi).

Turkey extends more than 1,600 km (994 mi) from west to
east but generally less than 800 km (497 mi) from north to
south. Total land area is about 780,580 km2 (301,384 sq
mi), of which 756,816 km2 (292,208 sq mi) are in Asia and
23,764 km2 (9,175 sq mi) in Europe (

Anatolia (
Turkish: Anadolu) is a large, roughly rectangular
peninsula situated bridgelike between Europe and Asia.
The Anatolian part of Turkey accounts for 97% of the
country's area. It is also known as Asia Minor, Asiatic
Turkey or the
Anatolian Plateau. The term Anatolia is
most frequently used in specific reference to the large,
semiarid central plateau, which is rimmed by hills and
mountains that in many places limit access to the fertile,
densely settled coastal regions.

The European portion of Turkey, known as
Turkish: Trakya), encompasses 3% of the total area but
is home to more than 10% of the total population.
Istanbul, the largest city of Europe and Turkey, has a
population of 11,372,613. Thrace is separated from the
Asian portion of Turkey by the
Bosporus (Turkish:
İstanbul Boğazı), the
Sea of Marmara (Turkish: Marmara
Denizi), and the
Dardanelles (Turkish: Çanakkale Boğazı).
Turkey and the rest of Europe.
    39°00′N 35°00′E
    Ranked 37th
    780,580 km² (301,383.6 sq
    98% land
    2 % water
Highest point
Lowest point
Longest river
Largest lake
    Van        3,755 km²
External boundaries

Land boundaries: 2,627 km (1,632 mi) border countries: Greece 206 km (128 mi), Bulgaria 240 km (149 mi), Georgia 252 km (157 mi), Armenia 268 km (167 mi),
Nakhchivan (Azerbaijan) 9 km (6 mi), Iran 499 km (310 mi), Iraq 331 km (206 mi), Syria 822 km (511 mi).

Coastline: 7,200 km (4,474 mi) Maritime claims: exclusive economic zone: in Black Sea only: to the maritime boundary agreed upon with the former USSR territorial sea: 6
nm in the Aegean Sea; 12 nm in Black Sea and in Mediterranean Sea
Istanbul and the Bosporus
Turkey's cities and towns
Turkey is bounded by
eight countries and six
bodies of water.
Surrounded by water on
three sides and
protected by high
mountains along its
eastern border, the
country generally has
well-defined natural
borders. Its demarcated
land frontiers were
settled by treaty early in
the twentieth century and
have since remained

The boundary with
Greece was confirmed
by the
Treaty of
in 1923,
which resolved
persistent boundary and
territorial claims
involving areas in Thrace
and provided for a
population exchange
War of
Independence). Under
the agreement, most
members of the sizable
community of western
Turkey were forced to
resettle in Greece, while
the majority of the
residents of
Thrace who
were not forced out
during the
Balkan wars
were removed to Turkey.

The boundary with
Bulgaria was confirmed
by the
Treaty of
in 1923.

Since 1991 the more
than 500 km (311 mi)
boundary with the former
Soviet Union, which was
defined in the 1921
Treaty of Moscow (1921)
Treaty of Kars, has
formed Turkey's borders
with the independent
countries of
Azerbaijan, and Georgia.
Despite Armenia's loss
of territory as a result of
the treaty, Armenia, as a
legal successor to the
Armenian SSR, declared
its loyalty to the Treaty of
Kars and all agreements
inherited by the former Soviet Armenian government after its independence.[1]

The boundary with Iran was confirmed by the Kasr-i Sirin treaty in 1638.

The boundary with
Iraq was confirmed by the Treaty of Angora (Ankara) in 1926. Turkey's two southern neighbors, Iraq and Syria, had been part of the Ottoman Empire up to 1918. According to the
terms of the
Treaty of Lausanne, Turkey ceded all its claims to these two countries, which had been organized as League of Nations mandates under the governing responsibility of Britain and France,
respectively. Turkey and Britain agreed the boundary in the Treaty of Angora (Ankara).

Turkey's boundary with Syria has not been accepted by
Syria. As a result of the Treaty of Lausanne, the former Ottoman Sanjak (province) of Alexandretta (present-day Hatay Province) was ceded to
Syria. However, in June 1939 the people of Hatay had formed a new independent State and immediately after, the parliament voted to unite with Turkey. Since achieving independence in 1946, Syria
has harbored a lingering resentment over the loss of the province and its principal towns of
Antakya and İskenderun (formerly Antioch and Alexandretta). This issue has continued to be an irritant in
Syrian-Turkish relations.
Topographic map of Turkey

Main article: Geology of Turkey

Turkey's varied landscapes are the product of a wide variety of tectonic processes
that have shaped Anatolia over millions of years and continue today as evidenced by
frequent earthquakes and occasional volcanic eruptions. Except for a relatively
small portion of its territory along the Syrian border that is a continuation of the
Arabian Platform, Turkey geologically is part of the great
Alpine belt that extends
from the
Atlantic Ocean to the Himalaya Mountains. This belt was formed during the
Tertiary Period (about 65 million to 1.6 million B.C.), as the Arabian, African, and
continental plates began to collide with the Eurasian plate. This process is
still at work today as the African Plate converges with the Eurasian Plate and the
Anatolian Plate escapes towards the west and southwest along
strike-slip faults.
These are the
North Anatolian Fault Zone, which forms the present day plate
boundary of Eurasia near the Black Sea coast, and the
East Anatolian Fault Zone,
which forms part of the boundary of the North Arabian Plate in the southeast. As a
result, Turkey lies on one of the world's
seismically most active regions.

However, many of the rocks exposed in Turkey were formed long before this
process began. Turkey contains outcrops of Precambrian rocks, (more than 540
million years old; Bozkurt et al., 2000). The earliest geological history of Turkey is
poorly understood, partly because of the problem of reconstructing how the region
has been tectonically assembled by plate motions. Turkey can be thought of as a
collage of different pieces (possibly
terranes) of ancient continental and oceanic
lithosphere stuck together by younger igneous, volcanic and sedimentary rocks.)
During the Mesozoic era (about 250 to 65 million
years ago) a large ocean (
Tethys Ocean), floored
by oceanic
lithosphere existed in-between the
supercontinents of
Gondwana and Laurasia
(which lay to the south and north respectively;
Robertson & Dixon, 2006). This large oceanic
plate was consumed at subduction zones (see
subduction zone). At the subduction trenches the
sedimentary rock layers that were deposited within
the prehistoric
Tethys Ocean buckled, were folded,
faulted and tectonically mixed with huge blocks of
crystalline basement rocks of the oceanic
lithosphere. These blocks form a very complex
mixture or
mélange of rocks that include mainly
serpentinite, basalt, dolerite and chert (e.g.
Bergougnan, 1975). The Eurasian margin, now
preserved in the Pontides (the
Pontic Mountains
along the
Black Sea coast), is thought to have
been geologically similar to the Western Pacific
region today (e.g. Rice et al., 2006). Volcanic arcs
volcanic arc) and backarc basins (see
back-arc basin) formed and were emplaced onto
Eurasia as ophiolites (see ophiolite) as they
collided with microcontinents (literally relatively
small plates of continental
lithosphere; e.g.
Ustaomer and Robertson, 1997). These
microcontinents had been pulled away from the
Gondwanan continent further south. Turkey is
therefore made up from several different
prehistorical microcontinents.
Fault lines & Earthquakes
During the Cenozoic (Tertiary about 65 to 1.6 million years) folding, faulting and uplifting, accompanied by volcanic activity and intrusion of igneous rocks was related to major continental collision
between the larger Arabian and Eurasian plates (e.g. Robertson & Dixon, 1984).

Present-day earthquakes range from barely perceptible tremors to major movements measuring five or higher on the open-ended
Richter scale. Turkey's most severe earthquake in the twentieth
century occurred in
Erzincan on the night of December 28-29, 1939; it devastated most of the city and caused an estimated 160,000 deaths. Earthquakes of moderate intensity often continue with
sporadic aftershocks over periods of several days or even weeks. The most earthquake-prone part of Turkey is an arc-shaped region stretching from the general vicinity of
Kocaeli to the area north of
Lake Van on the border with Armenia and Georgia.

Turkey's terrain is structurally complex. A central massif composed of uplifted blocks and downfolded troughs, covered by recent deposits and giving the appearance of a plateau with rough terrain, is
wedged between two folded mountain ranges that converge in the east. True lowland is confined to the
Ergene Plain in Thrace, extending along rivers that discharge into the Aegean Sea or the Sea of
Marmara, and to a few narrow coastal strips along the Black Sea and Mediterranean Sea coasts.

Nearly 85 % of the land is at an elevation of at least 450 meters; the median altitude of the country is 1,128 meters. In Asiatic Turkey, flat or gently sloping land is rare and largely confined to the deltas
of the
Kızıl River, the coastal plains of Antalya and Adana, and the valley floors of the Gediz River and the Büyükmenderes River, and some interior high plains in Anatolia, mainly around Tuz Gölü (Salt
Lake) and
Konya Ovasi (Konya Basin). Moderately sloping terrain is limited almost entirely outside Thrace to the hills of the Arabian Platform along the border with Syria.

More than 80 % of the land surface is rough, broken, and mountainous, and therefore is of limited agricultural value (see Agriculture, ch. 3). The terrain's ruggedness is accentuated in the eastern part
of the country, where the two mountain ranges converge into a lofty region with a median elevation of more than 1,500 meters, which reaches its highest point along the borders with Armenia,
Azerbaijan, and Iran. Turkey's highest peak,
Mount Ararat (Ağrı Dağı) — 5,137 meters high — is situated near the point where the boundaries of the four countries meet.
Regions of Turkey

Main article: Regions of

According to

The 1st Geography
Congress, held in Ankara
between 6-21 June 1941,
divided Turkey into seven
regions after long
discussions and work.
These geographical
regions were separated
according to their climate,
location, flora and fauna,
human habitat, agricultural
diversities, transportation,
topography and so on. At
the end, 4 side regions
and 3 inner regions were
named according to their
neighborhood to the four
seas surrounding Turkey
and positions in Anatolia.

Distinct contrasts between
the interior and periphery
of Turkey are manifested
in its landform regions,
climate, soils, and
vegetation. The periphery
is divided into the Black
Sea region, the Marmara
region, the Aegean region,
and the Mediterranean
region. The interior is also
divided into three regions:
the Pontus and Taurus
mountain ranges, the
Anatolian Plateau, and the
eastern highlands. The
seventh region of the
country is the Arabian
Platform in the southeast,
adjacent to the Syrian
Panoramic view of the Pontic Mountains
Black Sea

Main article: Black Sea
Region, Turkey

The Black Sea region has
a steep, rocky coast with
rivers that cascade
through the gorges of the
coastal ranges. A few
larger rivers, those cutting
back through the
Mountains (Doğu
Karadeniz Dağları), have
tributaries that flow in
broad, elevated basins.
Access inland from the
coast is limited to a few narrow valleys because mountain ridges, with elevations of 1,525 to 1,800 meters in the west and 3,000 to 4,000 meters in the east in Kaçkar Mountains, form an almost
unbroken wall separating the coast from the interior. The higher slopes facing northwest tend to be densely forested. Because of these natural conditions, the Black Sea coast historically has been
isolated from Anatolia.

Running from
Zonguldak in the west to Rize in the east, the narrow coastal strip widens at several places into fertile, intensely cultivated deltas. The Samsun area, close to the midpoint, is a major
tobacco-growing region; east of it are numerous citrus groves. East of Samsun, the area around
Trabzon is world-renowned for the production of hazelnuts, and farther east the Rize region has
numerous tea plantations. All cultivable areas, including mountain slopes wherever they are not too steep, are sown or used as pasture. The mild, damp climate of the Black Sea coast makes
commercial farming profitable. The western part of the Black Sea region, especially the Zonguldak area, is a center of coal mining and heavy industry.

The North Anatolian Mountains in the north are an interrupted chain of folded highlands that generally parallel the Black Sea coast. In the west, the mountains tend to be low, with elevations rarely
exceeding 1,500 meters, but they rise in an easterly direction to heights greater than 3,000 meters south of Rize. Lengthy, troughlike valleys and basins characterize the mountains. Rivers flow from the
mountains toward the Black Sea. The southern slopes—facing the Anatolian Plateau—are mostly unwooded, but the northern slopes contain dense growths of both deciduous and evergreen trees.

Main article: Marmara Region, Turkey

The European portion of Turkey consists mainly of rolling plateau country well suited
to agriculture. It receives about 520 millimeters of rainfall annually.

Densely populated, this area includes the cities of
Istanbul and Edirne. The
Bosphorus, which links the Sea of Marmara and the Black Sea, is about twenty-five
kilometers long and averages 1.5 kilometers in width but narrows in places to less
than 1000 meters. There are two suspension bridges over the Bosphorus, both its
Asian and European banks rise steeply from the water and form a succession of
cliffs, coves, and nearly landlocked bays. Most of the shores are densely wooded and
are marked by numerous small towns and villages. The
Dardanelles Strait, which
links the Sea of Marmara and the Aegean Sea, is approximately forty kilometers long
and increases in width toward the south. Unlike the Bosphorus, the Dardanelles has
fewer settlements along its shores. The
Saros Bay is located near the Gallipoli
peninsula and is famous for its clean beaches. It is a favourite spot among scuba
divers for the richness of its underwater fauna and is becoming increasingly popular
due to its vicinity to Istanbul.

The most important valleys are the
Kocaeli Valley, the Bursa Ovasi (Bursa Basin), and
the Plains of
Troy (historically known as the Troad.) The valley lowlands around Bursa
is densely populated.
View of Bursa from the hills near Uludağ, the ancient Mysian Olympus
View of Ölüdeniz near Fethiye

Main articles: Aegean
Region, Turkey and
Turkish Riviera

Located on the western
side of Anatolia, the
Aegean region has a fertile
soil and a typically
Mediterranean climate;
with mild, wet winters and
hot, dry summers. The
broad, cultivated valley
lowlands contain about
half of the country's richest

The largest city in the
Aegean Region of Turkey
İzmir, which is also the
country's third largest city
and a major
manufacturing center; as
well as its second largest
port after Istanbul.

Olive and olive oil
production is particularly
important for the economy
of the region. The seaside
town of
Ayvalık and
numerous towns in the
provinces of
İzmir and Aydın are
particularly famous for
their olive oil and related
products; such as soap
and cosmetics.

The region also has many
important centers of
tourism which are known
both for their historic
monuments and for the
beauty of their beaches;
such as
Assos, Ayvalık,
Bergama, Foça, İzmir,
Çeşme, Sardis, Ephesus,
Kuşadası, Didim, Miletus,
Bodrum, Marmaris, Datça
Panoramic view of Bodrum, ancient Halicarnassus, the city of Herodotus and the home of the Mausoleum of Maussollos, one of the Seven
Wonders of the Ancient World
Beaches and marina of Kemer near Antalya in the Turkish Riviera
Mediterranean Sea

Main articles:
Mediterranean Sea
Region, Turkey and
Turkish Riviera

Toward the east, the
extensive plains around
Adana, Turkey's fourth
largest city, consist largely
of reclaimed flood lands.
In general, rivers have not
cut valleys to the sea in the
western part of the region.
Historically, movement
inland from the western
Mediterranean coast was
difficult. East of Adana,
much of the coastal plain
has limestone features
such as collapsed caverns
and sinkholes. Between
Adana and
Antalya, the
Taurus Mountains rise
sharply from the coast to
high elevations. Other than
Adana, Antalya, and
Mersin, the Mediterranean
coast has few major cities,
although it has numerous
farming villages.

Paralleling the
Mediterranean coast, the
Taurus (Toros Dağları) is
Turkey's second chain of
folded mountains. The
range rises just inland
from the coast and trends
generally in an easterly
direction until it reaches
the Arabian Platform,
where it arcs around the
northern side of the
platform. The Taurus
Mountains are more
rugged and less dissected
by rivers than the Pontus
Mountains and historically
have served as a barrier to
human movement inland
from the Mediterranean
coast except where there
are mountain passes
such as the historic
Cilician Gates (Gülek
Pass), northwest of Adana.
Panoramic view of Alanya, inhabited since the Hittites and the medieval homeport of the Seljuk naval forces, famous today for its natural beauty
and historic monuments
Central Anatolia

Main article: Central
Anatolia Region, Turkey

Stretching inland from the
Aegean coastal plain, the
Central Anatolian occupies
the area between the two
zones of the folded
mountains, extending east
to the point where the two
ranges converge. The
plateau-like, semiarid
highlands of
Anatolia are
considered the heartland
of the country. The region
varies in elevation from
600 to 1,200 meters from
west to east. The two
largest basins on the
plateau are the
Ovasi and the basin
occupied by the large salt
Tuz Gölü. Both
basins are characterized
by inland drainage.
Wooded areas are
confined to the northwest
and northeast of the
plateau. Rain-fed
cultivation is widespread,
with wheat being the
principal crop. Irrigated
agriculture is restricted to
the areas surrounding
rivers and wherever
sufficient underground
water is available.
Important irrigated crops
include barley, corn,
cotton, various fruits,
grapes, opium poppies,
sugar beets, roses, and
tobacco. There also is
extensive grazing
throughout the plateau.
Central Anatolia receives little annual rainfall. For instance, the semiarid center of the plateau receives an average yearly precipitation of only 300 millimeters. However, actual rainfall from year to year is
irregular and occasionally may be less than 200 millimeters, leading to severe reductions in crop yields for both rain-fed and irrigated agriculture. In years of low rainfall, stock losses also can be high.
Overgrazing has contributed to soil erosion on the plateau. During the summers, frequent dust storms blow a fine yellow powder across the plateau. Locusts occasionally ravage the eastern area in April
and May. In general, the plateau experiences extreme heat, with almost no rainfall in summer and cold weather with heavy snow in winter.

Frequently interspersed throughout the folded mountains, and also situated on the Anatolian Plateau, are well-defined basins, which the Turks call ova . Some are no more than a widening of a stream
valley; others, such as the Konya Ovasi, are large basins of inland drainage or are the result of limestone erosion. Most of the basins take their names from cities or towns located at their rims. Where a
lake has formed within the basin, the water body is usually saline as a result of the internal drainage--the water has no outlet to the sea.
Mount Ararat
East and Southeast Anatolia

Main article: East Anatolia Region, Turkey
Main article: South Eastern Anatolia Region, Turkey

Eastern Anatolia, where the Pontus and Taurus
mountain ranges converge, is rugged country with
higher elevations, a more severe climate, and
greater precipitation than are found on the Anatolian
Plateau. The region is known as the Anti-Taurus,
and the average elevation of its peaks exceeds
3,000 meters.
Mount Ararat, at 5,137 meters the
highest point in Turkey, is located in the Anti-Taurus.
Many of the Anti-Taurus peaks apparently are
recently extinct volcanoes, to judge from extensive
lava flows. Turkey's largest lake,
Lake Van, is
situated in the mountains at an elevation of 1,546
meters. The headwaters of three major rivers arise
in the Anti-Taurus: the east-flowing Aras, which
empties into the
Caspian Sea; the south-flowing
Euphrates; and the south-flowing Tigris, which
eventually joins the
Euphrates in Iraq before
emptying into the
Persian Gulf. Several small
streams that empty into the Black Sea or landlocked
Lake Van also originate in these mountains.

In addition to its rugged mountains, the area is
known for severe winters with heavy snowfalls. The
few valleys and plains in these mountains tend to be
fertile and to support diverse agriculture. The main
basin is the Mus Valley, west of Lake Van. Narrow
valleys also lie at the foot of the lofty peaks along
river corridors.

Southeast Anatolia is south of the Anti-Taurus
Mountains. It is a region of rolling hills and a broad
plateau surface that extends into Syria. Elevations
decrease gradually, from about 800 meters in the
north to about 500 meters in the south. Traditionally,
wheat and
barley were the main crops of the region,
but the inauguration of major new irrigation projects
in the 1980s has led to greater agricultural diversity
and development.

Turkey's diverse
regions have
different climates,
with the weather
system on the coasts
contrasting with that
prevailing in the
interior. The Aegean
and Mediterranean
coasts have cool,
rainy winters and hot,
moderately dry
summers. Annual
precipitation in those
areas varies from
580 to 1,300
depending on
location. Generally,
rainfall is less to the
east. The Black Sea
coast receives the
greatest amount of
rainfall and is the
only region of Turkey
that receives rainfall
throughout the year.
The eastern part of
that coast averages
2,500 millimeters
annually which is the
highest precipitation
in the country.

Mountains close to
the coast prevent
influences from
extending inland,
giving the interior of
Turkey a continental
climate with distinct
seasons. The
Anatolian Plateau is
much more subject
to extremes than are
the coastal areas.
Winters on the
plateau are
especially severe.
Temperatures of -30 °C to -40 °C can occur in the mountainous areas in the east, and snow may lie on the ground 120 days of the year. In the west, winter temperatures average below 1 °C. Summers
are hot and dry, with temperatures above 30 °C. Annual precipitation averages about 400 millimeters, with actual amounts determined by elevation. The driest regions are the Konya Ovasi and the
Malatya Ovasi, where annual rainfall frequently is less than 300 millimeters. May is generally the wettest month and July and August the driest.

The climate of the Anti-Taurus Mountain region of eastern Turkey can be inhospitable. Summers tend to be hot and extremely dry. Winters are bitterly cold with frequent, heavy snowfall. Villages can be
isolated for several days during winter storms. Spring and autumn are generally mild, but during both seasons sudden hot and cold spells frequently occur.
                                              Average Temp                  High Temp                  Low Temp           Average Hum.                  Average Rain
Marmara Region
                13.5°C 56.3°F                 44.6°C 112.3°F         -27.8°C -18.0°F         71.2 %                         564.3 mm   22.2 in
Aegean Region                    15.4°C 59.7°F                 48.5°C 119.3°F         -45.6°C -50.1°F         60.9 %                         706.0 mm   27.8 in
Mediterranean Region       16.4°C 61.5°F                 45.6°C 114.1°F         -33.5°C -28.3°F         63.9 %                         706.0 mm   27.8 in
Black Sea Region                12.3°C 54.1°F                 44.2°C 111.6°F         -32.8°C -27.0°F         70.9 %                         828.5 mm   32.6 in
Central Anatolia                   10.6°C 51.1°F                 41.8°C 107.2°F         -36.2°C -33.2°F         62.6 %                         392.0 mm   15.4 in
East Anatolia                         9.7°C 49.5°F                   44.4°C 111.9°F         -45.6°C -50.1°F         60.9 %                         569.0 mm   22.4 in
Southeast Anatolia              16.5°C 61.7°F                 48.4°C 119.1°F         -24.3°C -11.7°F         53.4 %                         584.5 mm   23.0 in
Land use
Land use:
arable land: 32%
permanent crops: 4%
permanent pastures: 16%
forests and woodland: 26%
other: 22% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 36,740 km² (1993 est.)

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Mediterranean Sea 0 m
highest point: Mount Ararat 5,137 m
Natural hazards
Very severe earthquakes, especially in northern
Turkey, along an arc extending from the Sea of
Marmara to Lake Van. On August 17, 1999, a
7.4-magnitude earthquake struck northwestern
Turkey, killing more than 17,000 and injuring 44,000.


Current issues
Water pollution from dumping of chemicals and
detergents; air pollution, particularly in urban areas;
deforestation; concern for oil spills from increasing
Bosporus ship traffic.
International agreements
Air Pollution, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Desertification, Endangered Species,
Hazardous Wastes, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution,
signed, but not ratified: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Environmental Modification

Strategic location controlling the Turkish Straits (Bosporus, Sea of Marmara,
Dardanelles) that link Black and Aegean Seas.

See also
Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Geography of Turkey


Bergougnan, H. (1975) Dispositif des ophiolites nord-est anatoliennes, origine des nappes ophiolitiques et sud-pontiques, jeu de la faille nord-anatolienne. Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des
Seances de l'Academie des Sciences, Serie D: Sciences Naturelles, 281: 107-110.

Bozkurt, E. and Satir, M. (2000) The southern Menderes Massif (western Turkey); geochronology and exhumation history. Geological Journal, 35: 285-296.

Rice, S.P., Robertson, A.H.F. and Ustaömer, T. (2006) Late Cretaceous-Early Cenozoic tectonic evolution of the Eurasian active margin in the Central and Eastern Pontides, northern Turkey. In:
Robertson, (Editor), Tectonic Development of the Eastern Mediterranean Region. Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 260, London, 413-445.

Robertson, A. and Dixon, J.E.D. (1984) Introduction: aspects of the geological evolution of the Eastern Mediterranean. In: Dixon and Robertson (Editors), The Geological Evolution of the Eastern
Mediterranean. Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 17, 1-74.

Ustaömer, T. and Robertson, A. (1997) Tectonic-sedimentary evolution of the north Tethyan margin in the Central Pontides of northern Turkey. In: A.G. Robinson (Editor), Regional and Petroleum
Geology of the Black Sea and Surrounding Region. AAPG Memoir, 68, Tulsa, Oklahoma, 255-290.

All Armenian Mass Media Association: In Vartan Oskanian's Words, Turkey Casts Doubt On The Treaty Of Kars With Its Actions
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